Friday, February 15, 2019



This project “The use of satire for change in Wole Soyinka’s The Lion and the Jewel and Ola Rotimi’s Our Husband Has Gone Mad Again “ was carried out by Francis, Agnes Michael, Registration Number 2014/NC/26876 of the Department of English, College of Education Afaha Nsit under my supervision. 
 I certify it as satisfactory for the award of the Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) In English Language.  

I.T. UKUT………………………………….. 
(Supervisor)   Signature                Date 

 Dr. GLORIA INYANG………………………………….. 
  (Dean) Signature                 Date 

(Internal Supervisor) Signature                 Date  
I solemnly declare that this project has been written by me as a record of my research findings. All citations are indicated and sources of information acknowledged. 
Name of Student: Francis, Agnes Michael  
Registration Number: 2014/NC/26876 
This research work is dedicated to God Almighty, the source of knowledge.
I wish to express my sincere and profound gratitude to my supervisor Mr. I. T. Ukut, for taking the pains to read through this work, for his guidance, encouragement and useful suggestions which have led to the successful completion of this research. 
I give thanks to my parents, Mr. /Mrs. Michael Francis Udo and my siblings for their moral and financial support, advice, prayer and the encouragement they showed to me throughout my years of study.  
I owe special thanks to my friends Unwana Edem, Francis and Harmony Edumoh for their encouragement, financial support and valuable suggestions which helped me to complete this research project.  
Also, I acknowledge my friends who stood by me and have shared vital ideas to me throughout the course of my educational pursuit and especially during the period of writing this project, thank you and God bless you all, Amen.   
This research work entitled “The use of Satire for change” aimed at exploring the meaning of satire, its origin, types or classification and how it is used effectively by writers to check the excesses of people in the society. Soyinka's The Lion and the Jewel  and Rotimi’s Our Husband Has Gone Mad Again aptly capture(s) social ills such as dirty politics, conflict between cultures, deceit and betrayal as seen in the Nigerian society. The analysis of the texts exposed, condemned and sought means of restoring dignity to the society.      
Page Break 
Cover Page  
Declaration ---------iii 
Dedication --------iv 
Acknowledgements --------v 
Table of Contents --------vii 

  1. Background of the Study------1 
  1. Statement of the Problem------1 
  1. Purpose of the Study-------2 
  1. Significance of the Study------2 
  1. Research Methodology------2 
  1. Scope and Limitation of the Study -----3 

2.1Concept of Satire-------6 
2.1.1 The Origin of Satire-------6 
2.1.2 Types of Satire-------8 
2.2Use of Satire for Reformation------10 
2.3Features of a satirical Text------11 

3.1Bio-data of the Author ------12  
3.2Analysis of the Text-------13 
3.2Themes in Wole Soyinka’s The Lion and the Jewel ---15 
3.3Clash and Disagreement------15 
3.2.2Youths and the Problems of Self-realization ----15 
3.2.3Bride Price and its Importance-----16 
3.2.4The Marginalization of Women as Property----17  
3.2.5Victory for Tradition-------17  
3.3 Style in the Play-------18  
3.2.1Significance of the Title ------18 
3.3.2 Uses of Symbol and Images------18  
3.3.3Invocation of Sango and his Lightening----18  
3.3.4Dance and Mime-------19 
3.3.5Language use in the text------19 
3.4Characterization in the Lion and the Jewel----19  
3.4.1Baroka --------19 
3.4.5The Favorite --------20 
3.4.6The Surveyor --------20 
3.5Satirical Elements in the Lion and the Jewel----20 

4.1Bio-date of Ola Rotimi------22 
4.2Analysis of Ola Romiti’s Our Husband Has Gone Mad Again -23 
4.3Themes in Ola Romiti’s Our Husband Has Gone Mad Again-24  
4.3.1The Theme of Dirty Politics ------24 
4.3.2Gender Inequality -------24 
4.3.4Inter –Cultural Marriages ------25 
4.3.5 Deceit and Betrayal -------26 
4.3.6Superstition --------26 
4.4Style in the Play-------27   
4.4.1 Gun---------27 
4.4.2Promise --------27 
4.4.3Language --------27 
4.5 Characterization on Our Husband Has Gone Mad Again --28 
4.5.1Rahman Taslim Lejoka-Brown -----28 
4.5.2 Mama Rashida -------29 
4.5.3Sikira ---------29 
4.5.4Liza ---------29 
4.5.5 Madam Bambina Uchenna Ajanaku----30 
4.5.6Mallam Gaskiya -------31 
4.6 Satirical Elements in Our Husband Has Gone Mad Again--31 


Work Cited 
  1. Background of the Study 
Africa is a continent blessed with both human and material resource. Although it is however ironical to note that all that the Africans have been blessed with are not put into proper use by the various leaders of the different African countries.  
Wole Soyinka, a Nigerian born writer seems to satirizes the luxurious lifestyle of the Nigerian leaders at the expense of the economy of Nigeria and decides to portray it in the text entitle, The lion and the Jewel to ridicule the Nigerian leaders.  
Ola Rotimi setouts to portray in Our Husband Has Gone Mad Again the Nigerian Political landscape and corruption. Ola Rotimi uses his text to expose societal ills in the society, gender inequality and power relations in the text.  
Before contact with the whites, West African society was cohesive. Africans were their brother’s keepers. The advents of western civilization change the communal spirit in African State. After independence, when the mantle of leadership fell on Africans themselves, the statusquo was maintained.  
This wholesome transformation of Africa has attracted the attention of some creative literary artists among who are Wole Soyinka and Ola Rotimi who in their literary creations mirrored these canker worms which now eat deep into the fabric of our common existence as a corporate entity.  
  1. Statement of the Problem 
In our society today, many people are diverting from doing the right thing. Most youths and adults are corrupt and they are addicted to bad morals which destroy the society which the live in, most at time as a result of trying to attain certain political power. Now a day’s most politicians use indirect way to make people vote for them during elections. It can also be seen in our society today that most leaders of the society collect money from people to give them what they do not merit.  
Due to these factors, it has call for concern which prompted the researcher to embark on this research work. 
  1. Purpose of the Study 
The objectives of this research are:-  
  1. To showcase the use of satire as a tool for change in Nigeria as portrayed in these two texts. 
  1. To highlight the impact of these problems on individuals in Nigeria.  
  1. To showcase the conflicts between old and new, western and traditional cultures.   
  1. Significance of the Study 
This study will contributed to the knowledge about the negative change affecting the society. It will also examine how the authors have addressed the issues of this change in the texts that affect the society that they live in. the study is also significant because it exposes the change in Nigerian thereby helping the leaders or reader to learn and avoid the problems of the past leaders in the society.  
  1. Research Methodology 
The methodology that is used in this work is the library research method. The primary research method is applied to the texts under investigation while the secondary research method centres on the critical works and books, journals and magazines from the library. Then the internet source will be used in order to facilitate the use of modern materials through browsing. 
  1. Scope and Limitation of the Study  
This research centers on the two texts of the project. This enables the research to concentrate on the detailed analysis of the two texts and explication of the concept of the use of satire for change in the country. Moreover, for purpose of convenience, the research is limited in scope to the primary texts in other to facilitate the timely completion of the work as stipulated by the authority.           
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The concern of this chapter is to provide a theoretical framework of the study. The chapter therefore looks at literature in relation to the society, the views of scholars as related to the topic under investigation, reviewing the concept of satire, its origin or history and types or classification of satire as well as its purpose and relevance and how it is used to reconstruct the society.  
According to Maynard Mack, “satire asserts the validity and necessity of norms, systematic values and meaning that are contained by recognizable code” (P. 85) satire is inescapably moral and didactic even when no definite positive value are stated in the work as alternatives to the gross corruptions depicted by the attack. The satirist does not need to state specific moral alternatives to replace the villainy that he attacks because the morality is either already presents in the lip service his target pays to virtue, or it is apparent by implication.  
Satire is indeed so thoroughly concerned with justice, morality and virtue that it has no number of striking resemblances to the basic ethical viewpoint of religion. Both satire and religion believe strongly in the fallen nature of man, that right conduct is not possible for a man without a guide. Edward and Lillian Blooms say that the satirist must love or at least care for mankind to take the trouble to attack and hopefully correct the wickedness (P. 115 – 139). We could say this is the satirist’s practical application of Christ’s injunction to love our enemies (Matthew 5:44, Luke 6: 27 – 28) because genuine concern for others welfare when it does not affect us personally is one of the basic indications of disinterested love. 
In addition to what Maynard Mack said, I deduce that satire is an element of ridicule, amusement, contempt, indignation and scorn in which certain practices, concepts, ideas, events and attitudes are made fun of as a way of drawing attention to them as condemnable.  
According to Charles Sanders, the satirist territory is the zone between illusion and reality where what is taken for granted becomes strange to viewers or itself and the strange become credible or logical (P.1). The satirist deals then in what seems to be real but is not and his world is nearly always a dual one suggesting both the actual and the fantastic populated by characters consistence only in their inconsistencies.  
Sanders also posits that a satirist needs not, however, restrict himself to the” real” world achieving his effects by emphasizing familiar details to the point at which they necessarily distort themselves, he may at the outset of his work explicitly merge our world with the supernatural.  
In line with what sanders has said I conclude that satire uses humour to highlight problems that people might not have been aware of and may inspire them to actively seek changes that can answer these problems.  
Whatever vision or form the satirist elects, he presents us with a world of double nature, its purpose is to hold up to scorn a person, idea or an institution and the object is generally familiar and contemporary taken for granted, perhaps ignored, however else, he may ask himself, can he move his audience to perceive the object as he sees it except through comparison and contrast, through a deliberate distortion of one’s usual perception.  
In order to ridicule, the satirist exaggerates and of necessity shrouds the fact yet his job like that of any satirist is to persuade his audience at least for the amount of time he participates in his experience of the “truth” of his exaggeration or falsification. The satirist must as charismatic to his audience as the object of his derision is repugnant to it. And so frequently, in addition to a double external form, satire reveals a double point of view, tone or attitude, and a satirist can be found to be employing almost every figure from rhetoric ancient or modern which will intensify the effect of his vision but neutralize the presence of his own personality. Satire and Irony in some cases have been regarded as the most effective source to understand a society, the oldest form of social study.  They provide the keenest insight into a groups collective psyche, reveal its deepest value and taste and the society’s structure of power.     
2.1Concept of Satire 
According to J. O. J. Nwachukwu – Agbada satire is a literary convention in literature through which the writer criticize certain aspects of the society, highlights issues through the depiction of flaws, faults and mistakes of the character. A work of fiction that is satirical makes use of humour, which is intended to make the reader laugh at the mistakes of the character but at the same time think of constructive methods that can be employed to correct such mistakes of the character. In highlighting such mistakes, the writer makes use of exaggeration. The exaggerated portrayal of the weakness of the character helps to foreground the massage of the writer (P.14).  
2.1.1 The Origin of Satire 
According to Bloom the word satire comes from the Latin word satur meaning “full” but the juxtaposition with Lanx shifted the meaning to “medley” the expression Lanx satura literally means “a full dish of various kinds of fruits (P. 4). 
The word satura as used by Quintilian, however was used to denote only the Roman Verse satire, a strict genre that imposed a narrower genre than what would be later intended as satire. The first critic to use the term satire in the modern broader sense was Apuleius.  
The beginning of classical satire: According to Wikipedia, satire has been an accepted form of social commentary since 5. Bc, mainly in plays and poetry. Aristophanes, a Greek Playwright, is one of the best known early satirist whose play “the clouds” written in 423BC satirized societies as the incarnation of atheism and sophist. Whilst “The Wasps” written in 422Bc satirized the Athenian court system.  
According to Meriam Webster, from the Greek playwright Aristophanes, however, the Roman poets Horace and Juvenal established the genre of formal verse satire which subsequently influenced most satirical works.  
20th century satire: According to New World Encyclopedia, in 20th century literature, satire was used by authors as Alodusn Huxley (1930s) and Goerge Orw (1950s) which under the inspiration of Zamyatins Russian 1921 novel made serious and even frightening commentaries and dangers of sweeping social changes taking place throughout Europe and United State (US). Many social critics of the time such as Karl Kraus, Dorathy parker and H. L. Mencken in particular are noted for having said that “one horse laugh is worth ten thousand syllogisms” in the persuasion of the public to accept a criticism. Novelist Sinclair Lewis was known for his satirical stories such as “Babit” (1922)” Mainstreet” (1920) and “it can happen here” (1935). His book often explore the satirized contemporary American values in the united states 

 (1950) satire was introduced into American stand up come most prominently by Lenny Bruce and Mort Sahl. As they challenged the taboos and conventional Wisdom of the times, were Ostracised by the mass Media establishment as sick comedians. In the same period, Paul Krassner’s magazine the Realist began publication to become immensely popular during the 1960s and early 1970s among people in the counter culture.  
2.1.2 Types of Satire 
Satire is a diverse genre which is complex to classify and define, with a wide range of satiric modes. Satirical literature can commonly be categorized as either Horatian or Juvenilia although the two are not entirely mutually exclusive. 
Satire according to Jonathan Swift, an Agloirish satirist, in his book “the Battle of the book, preface”, “is a sort of glass, wherein beholders do generally discover everybody’s face but their own, which is the chief reason for that kind of reception it meet in the world and that, so very few are offended with it”. 
Satire is known as a literary style which makes light of a subject diminishing its importance by placing it in an amusing or scornful light. Unlike comedy, satire attempts to create humour by deriding its topic as opposed to a topic that evokes laughter in itself. Satire attempts to give us more humours look at attitudes, edvances and state of affairs and in some cases (as in Jonathan Swifts “A modest proposal), the entire human race. The least form of satire is Horatin satire, the style used by Addison and Steele in their essays. A much more abrasive style is Juvenilia satire as used by Jonathan Swift in the aforementioned essay “A modest proposal”.    
Juvenilia satire: According to Wise Greek, Juvenilia satire is one of the two major divisions of satire; it is named after the Roman satirist Juvenal (late 1st century to early 2nd century CE). It is characterized by its bitter and abrasive native; it can be directly contrasted with Horatain satire. A Juvenilian satirist is much more likely to see the target of his satire as evil or actively harmful to society and to attack them with serious intent to harm their reputation or power, while Juvenalian satire often arracks individual on personal level, its most common objectives is social criticism. Juvenal was a poet active in the Roman republic during the 1st century CE, best known for his bitter attacks on the public figures and institutions with which he disagreed. Juvanal engage in savage personal attacks.  
He utilizes the satirical tools of exaggeration and parody to make his target appear monstrous or incompetent while he occasionally utilized humour to make his point. Juvenal satire had come in common with the invective of a political pundit than modern satirists. The primary weapons of Juvenalian satire are scorn and ridicule. Often a satirist will exaggerate the words of position of an opponent or place them in a context that highlights their flaws or self contradiction. From Juvenal’s own lifetime to the present, Jonathan swift and Samuel Johnson borrowed heavily from Juvenal’s techniques in their critiques to contemporary English society. 
Horatian Satire: Haratian satire is also named after a roman Satirist Horace (65 -8 BCE), playfully criticizes some social vices through gentle mild and light hearted humour. It is noted for its more pleasant and amusing nature. Horace, Juvenal’s predecessor, utilizes gentle ridicule and absurdism to point out the flows and foibles of the Roman society. He directs wit, exaggeration and self deprecating humour towards what it identifies as folly rather than evil.  
Horatian satires sympathetic tone is common in modern society which can be denoted from the texts under study. 
2.2Use of Satire for Reformation 
The satirist aims to mend the world as far as they are able, not that they hope for any kind of perfection or believe in complete corrigibility of any man. Ideally, the satirist would like to see a return to the practice of morality   which he feels has been abandoned by society, but he is away that not only to stop the decay of civilization but also to reverse the trends of decay and to move towards a true moral progress although satire intends always to be corrective, it can guarantee only to expose vice and hypocrisy and to demonstrate the previous effects such vices have when allowed to continue; the satirist goals can be effected only to the extent the audience responds to the attack.  
Derived by implication from corrective purpose the aim of satire must be the maintenance of standards, reaffirmation of values and the necessity to reform. Satire is indeed so thoroughly concerned with the virtue it follows that general satire must presupposes and approves of morals in a widely spread value system. When these values are at odds with behaviour, the satirist tries to bring them back inline again or at least prevent the gap from widening.  

2.3Features of a satirical Text 
A satirical text must have the following features; Irong or Sarcasm, parody, exaggeration, juxtaposition, comparism analogy. 
A satirical text is a text in which vices, follies, abuses and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming itself into improvement. Although satire is usually meant to be humorous, it’s greater purpose is often constructive social criticism, using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issue in society.  
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3.1Bio-data of the Author   
Akinwande Olu Wole Soyinka was born in Abeakuta, Ogun State. He attended the Government College Ibadan and studied English Literature, Greek Ibadan (1952 -1954).  While at Ibadan he was active in student politics, forming the pirates confraternity to combat in justice and oppression on campus. He obtain a degree in English Literature from the University of Leeds (Uk) in 1957. He went on to work as a play reader at the Royal court theatre in London where his plays gain applause. In 1960 Soyinka was awarded a Rockfever research bursary by University College, Ibadan, and then he return to Nigeria to study African drama. In his long and illustrious career, he taught at the University of Lagos, Ibadan, Ife Cambridge, Sheffield and vale and received over 30 awards of honour, amongst which are Nigeria’s Commander of the Federal Republic, CFR (1986) and the Nigerian National Merit Award (NNMA) 2008.  
Wole Soyinka is widely respected at home and abroad as an author, political commentator and social activist. In 1986, he became the first person of African descent to be awarded the Noble Prize for Literature.  
A prolific writer of over 30 titles in all genres he has been active in issues of national life and governance, a position which has put him at odd with Nigeria’s political leaders.  
In 1994, Soyinka was appointed a UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador for the promotion of African culture, human rights freedom of expression media and communication.  
Soyinka divides his time between Nigeria and the United (Califonia), where he is professor of creative writing.  
He authored the following book: 
The Swamp Dewellers (1963), The Lion and the Jewel (1963), The Trials of Brother Jero (1963) Kongi’s Harvest (1967)’ Madmen and specialist (1971), The Bacche of Euripies (1973) Death and the King’s Horsemen (1977) Opera Wonyosi (1981), The Beautification of the Area Boy (1995).  
Novel: The Interpreters (1965), season of Anomie (1973). 
Memoir: The man died: Prison notes (1972),  
Ake: The Years of Childhood (1981), Ibadan: 
Penkelemes Years: A memoir (1994), you must forth at Dawn (2006).  
3.2Analysis of the Text 
Soyinka’s the Lion and the Jewel is an indictment on post Colonial Africa where modernity and tradition are in constant conflict. The country Nigeria is faced with conflict between cultures, specifically modernity and tradition. Soyinka relates modernity to the influence of British culture on Nigerian way of life.  
The Lion and the Jewel tells a funny story involving four main characters. Lakunle is a school teacher of the village who is a young man of twenty – three years who is bent on bestowing western culture onto the people of Ilunjinle. Sidi is the Jewel, the village belle whose beauty has been captured by a photographer and published in a magazine. Bale Baroka is the Lion of Ilunjinle, who is a chief and has several wife’s. 
Both Lakunle and Baroka love Sidi. The final major character is Sadiku the Lion’s head wife.  
The Lion and the Jewel Satirically presents Lakunle who stands for change facing a challenge with Baroka who stands for tradition. Soyinka argues that the conflicts in Nigeria are of different sides, it may be as a result of generation gab, or education or beliefs. His argument has been strengthened by his text The Lion and the Jewel which depicts the Nigerian society betrayed by its own people. BarokaLakunle and Sidi exhibit internal and external conflict with tradition and modern culture.  
Throughout the entire play, there is a battle between Baroka and Lakunle for Sidi’s hand in marriage. Sidi sees value in both of them and it is hard for her to choose one of them over the other Lakunle stands to represent progress and cultured romance who was captivated by Sidi’s own Charm. Unfortunately, he failed at the crucial hours to obtain him and Baroka succeeded in having Sidi’s hand in marriage. 
 Soyinka’s play shows the influence of modern world on African mind. Lakunle an elementary school teacher failed as a result of refusing to apprehend the sense of culture and advancement. Baroka who is cunning manage to lure Sidi into coming to his palace.  He tells Sadiku about his apparent impotence, Sadiku tells Sidi about it, Sidi on hearing this takes that opportunity to go to Baroka’s palace and tease him. She taunts Baroka saying that he failed to produce any children for the last two years. Baroka tricked Sidi and have sex with her by telling her about her beauty he also shows her the new magazine and an addressed envelope. He shows her a stamp featuring her likeness and tell her that her picture will adorn the official stamp of the village if she marries him. Sidi joyfully marries Baroka at the end of the play.  
3.2Themes in Wole Soyinka’s The Lion and the Jewel  
3.2.1Clash and Disagreement 
The play presents a clash between an octogenarian chief of the village and a young teacher. It is an amusing play where Soyinka has presented a young man who adheres to all the vulgarity and superficiality of the Western world and thus he appears as a caricature of modern human beings. Baroka loves the traditional culture of his country and sees modern ideas as a threat to his authority. In this regard, the two characters represent the Sides of the major social and political problems in Nigeria. The disagreement is between Baroka, the traditionalist who seeks to nullify the changes done in the name of progress due to vested interest and Lakunle, the modernist who wants to see the last of outdated traditional beliefs at all cost.  
3.2.2Youths and the Problems of Self-realization  
In this play, Soyinka manages to expose societal mistakes focusing on youths and the problems of self-definition. When Sidi heard that her photograph cover three pages and Baroka’s photograph seems to be in the corner of a page she said: “if that is true, then I am more esteemed than the Bale Baroko, the Lion of Ilunjinle. This means I am greater than the Fox of the under –growth” (11). This shows that Sidi is far important than Baroka. In addition she has confusion in her decision to choose between Baroka the chief who represent the old value and Lakunle the school teacher who represents the new allurements of Western culture.   
3.2.3Bride Price and its Importance 
It is clear that, the price of the bride is money or property given by the bride groom to the family of the bride. In the primitive African Societies, they follow the footsteps of tradition and culture. Thus, the good price is an honour to the bride. If a girl marries without the price, it is assumed that she is not a virgin. In Sidi’s case, she insists on dowries, because she is untouched by the foreign ideas and culture. She tells Lakunle 
I have told you, I say it again I shall marry you today, next week or any day you name.  
But I tell you, Lakunle, I must have the full bride-price. Will you make me a laughing –stock? Well do as you please but Sidi will not make herself a cheap bowl for the village spit (7).  

As for Lakunle, he calls the system of bride price as a savage custom, barbaric, outdate unpalatable (7). Lakunle opposes the custom because of his influence on western concept of gender equality or his empty pocket. In his concept, this custom is a disgrace and humiliation to women, he says, “to pay the price would be to buy a heifer off the market stall” (8). Also the complete “you would be a Chattel, my mere property”(8).  
Finally Sidi is uncomfortable by Lakunle’s ideas and beliefs especially, his ideas about the role of women and the duty of wife. She hates his miserliness that she consider it as a cheating way, mean and miserly” (9).       

3.2.4The Marginalization of Women As Property  
Soyinka portrays the custom and tradition in his Yoruba society. The Polygamous society gives importance to Bale to marry as many girls as he wants. He just uses them for pleasure and after the arrival of the new favourite, he sends the last favourite to an outhouse. In our society, due respect are not given to women as Lakunle says “they are used to pound the yam or bends all the  day to plant the millet … to fetch and  Scrub, to bring forth children by the groos” (7,8). 
3.2.5Victory for Tradition  
The study of the characters and their activities highlight the unexpected ending of the play delineating tradition’s triumph over modernity. In the case of Lakunle’s character, who believes in the Western value to leap at the chance to bypass the bride –price because Sidi is no longer a virgin. As for Sidi, she is the needle of the pendulum, she weaver from end to end, confused before finally setting on the traditional side. Baroka has many wives though he want Sidi to be his wife , on seeing her in a magazine seated alone, he laments “yes yes… it is five full month since last I took a wife … five full months’’ (18). Lakunle beg Sidi not to agree to marry Baroka but she has to assert herself to put an end to his clowning. ’’My name is Sidi. And now let me be. My name is Sidand I am beautiful (20). Sidi sees Lakunle as a nuisance, she sees Baroka as a challenge. 
WheSadikuBaroka’s head wife reveals that Sidi’s refusal of Baroka’s marriage proposal has broken him down; Sidi decides to taunt Baroka and reveal his defeat, with her knowledge. In fact, she returns from her venture defeated because the Lion had beaten the Jewel. Lakunle offers to marry Sidi despite her lack of virginity, but Sidi refuses and joyfully goes on to marry Baroka, the Lion. Thus, the victory is for tradition represented by Baroka.     
3.3 Style in the Play  
3.3.1Significance of the Title  
The Lion and the Jewel the title of the novel depicts the relationship between two leading characters of the play: The chieftain of the village ilunjinle, is named Boraka and is known as the “Lion” He is sixty –two years old and able to deceive the village belle, Sidi as the title indicate, Sidi is the “Jewel” of the village who gets tricked by Baroka and ends up sleeping with him.  
3.3.2 Uses of Symbol and Images Camera: The stranger’s camera symbolizes modernity. It is an unfamiliar object to the extent that one village girls calls it “one eyed box” (10). It is able to capture Sidi’s beautiful image and reproduce it. 
3.3.3Invocation of Sango and his Lightening  
Sango is a Yoruba Orisha, a ruler and wielder of justice. He is evoked several times in the text. First, Sadiku uses him to threaten obnoxious Lakunle. Second, she evokes him again when she is exulting over Bale’s importance “oh Sango my Lord, who of us possessed your lightening and ran like fire through that lions trade” (33). Third Baroka mentions him when he tells Sidi his views on progress “Among the bridges and the murderous roads, below humming birds which smoke the face of Sango, dispenser of the snake tongue lightening” (52). Every time he imentioned, the character mentioning him is talking about justice, retribution and revenge.  
3.3.4Dance and Mime 
Soyinka makes use of dance and mime as a means of entertainment and communication for the board village youths. The most prominent dance in the text is the dance of the lost travelers (14-16). 
3.3.5Language use in the text 
Soyinka does not use the culture of his ancestors as a gimmick to sell his abilities or even as an export commodity, but as inborn material for expansion. His skillful use of idioms with the lively and musical Nigerian flavour in no way detracts from the command of the English Language which he possesses. 

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