Pages

Friday, February 15, 2019

Family Size: Academic performance than those from large family size


2.1 Family Size and Academic Performance 
Family size in this context refers to the total number of individuals comprising a family unit, Treas (1981) argues convincingly for decomposing the concept into two components numbers of children and number of adults in the household. 
     However, family type that a child comes from either large or small family usually have impact on the child’s academic performance. It is important to more that either of the family type (monogamous or polygamous) family dictates the size of the family. Polygamous family is peculiar to Africa in general and Nigeria in particular. The data collected revealed that large family size is common among well educated family as well as among poorly educated families. It is equally among pro-tensional 
And managerial fathers of the top of the occupational hierarchy. It is the unskilled workers at the bottom of ladders that the practice of polygamy is prominent, but it is equally common among instinctually oriented families living in homes full of recent books as well as families without a singe book in their houses. 
Furthermore, Powell and Steelman (1993) and Vanejik and Degraaf (1995) argued that children’s attainment depends on input of time and money from their parents. The more increase of children in a family the less of both inputs. These inputs are not money alone, but other essential things like time, attention, resource delusion and so on. However Booth and Kee (2006) confirmed that children from larger families have lower levels of education.  
Evans (2008) stressed that family size also determine to a great extent the relative amount of physical attention and time which each child get from his parents. This is true because children from smaller families have a greater chance of being organized to stand on their own and take full responsibility of their actions, they are not generally considered as one of the children.  On the other hand, a family that is larger than desired can put such strain on the time energy and budget of a family that the attitudes of both parents toward parent hood can be unfavorably influenced, which in turn lead to poor academic performance in schools. It is evident therefore, that the size of the family has some influence on intellectual development of children. What ever the cause, the quality of life in most large families does influence measured intelligence and perhaps even towards school. These tendencies are most likely to have a vital bearing on their emotional, mental and physical abilities. 
2.2 Parents Education Attainment and Academic Performance 
       Valencia and Renald (2003) observed that the level of parental education is related to English test of children. From their study, they concluded that parents who are relatively higher in levels of education tend to transmit to their children more culture of the academic they acquired than parents who are illiterates. The investigation further recanted that parents’ positive values attach to education is a function of their educational achievement. Smart (2007) has concluded that in most homes today it is apparent that parents educational level correlate positively with their academic performance of their children, for better educated parents are more likely to give their children practice in their school subject at home, go to school to find out their progress report and assignment records and function as achievement models. 
The author also stressed that educated parents usually show interest in their children’s academic achievement, choose subjects, meet and collaborate with administrators of schools to ensure their children’s rate of seriousness in their studies (Bandura, 2011). 
Barlows (2010) Posits that as important goal of educational policy is to provide appropriate and equitable opportunities that meet the learning need of all individuals, regardless of the difference in their family backgrounds. In most recent research parent educational attainment especially the mother contribute positively to their children this is because home is the first agent of socialization, that the child learns first before going to school, even after the school. The exectent of disadvantages associate with those children whose parents have not computed upper secondary education is evident; it shows that those children are of average more likely to be among the bottom quartile of the national distribution in reaching performance than the rest of students. According to Cameron (2010) parental education is found to be key determinants of pupils’ performance, but the roles of mother’s education differs across child gender and level of ability. For example, father’s education has significantly positive effect on academic performance for both boys and girls, while mother’s education matters for girls. The effect of father’s education ins for lower ability children, while mother’s education is higher ability children (Caldes and Bankston,(2005). 
2.3 Socio-Economic Status and Academic Performance      
The socio-economic status of parents also influences the level of educational performance of the pupils. This is so because, with the availability of money and resources, the family will be able to provide them with all the needed materials. 
Jones (2006) observed that children from poor family background will be denied of this opportunity irrespective of their brilliant performances since there is no resources and money to back up their demands. 
Ezenwn (2004) opined that children from a high socio-economic status leave the primary schools between 9,10 and 11 years of age, while those of low socio-economic status leave primary schools they also encourage their children at home or employ part-time teacher to assist them. It is a great help to a child to live in pleasant surrounding, be provide with educational toys, go to private schools with high staffing ratio etc. 
(Musgrave, 1999). Parented (2007), drew the distinction between above average income families showed relative stability, clean living quarters and little actual neglect for children in the latter group. The families were highly unstable “existing on a day to day basic in constant crisis.”  These children were extremely neglected, there by adversely affecting level of academic performance. 
2.4 Summary of the Related Literature  
 Related literature to family variables and academic performance of pupils in social studies in primary schools were selected and cited in this chapter. 
However, many Nigerians nowadays feel that class leveling is not based on tradition only but there are other parameters to be considered such as the social strata, the family background, income of parent, parents educational qualification etc going by the opinions and investigators of various authors and researchers, It is discovered that these family variables have greatly influenced the over all educational performance of the children of such family. The literature review therefore clearly showed that family variables such as family size, parent’s educational qualification, and socio-economic status of the family are determining factors of the level of achievement of the primary school pupils.    






CHAPTER THREE 
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 
This chapter focused on a brief description of the methodology, procedures use in the study, sample of the study, sampling technique, instrumentation, validation of instrument, Administration of instrument and method of data analysis. 
3.1 Research Design 
The descriptive survey design was used in the study to examine the influence of family variables on pupil’s academic performance in social studies. 
  1. Area of the study 
The area of the study was restricted to Nsit Ibom Local Government Area. Nsit Ibom is made up of a homogeneous group of people who originated from a single ancestral stock. Ibibio Language is spoken and understood by all. The people are predominantly of the Christian faith although some forms of traditional African religion are practice by negligible minority. 
Nsit Ibom Local Government Area is located between latitudes 40 48 and 50 01 North and longitude 70 51 and 70 57 East. It has a land mass of 183, 1059 km. 
The local Government Area which occupies the heart of Akwa Ibom State is bounded on the north by Uyo Local Government Area. The National census of March 2006 has put the population of Nsit Ibom Local Government Area at 108, 611. The Local Government Area has a population density of 347 persons per square kilometer as at year 1991 and 522 persons per square kilometer in 2005. The population distribution by gender as at 2006 is as follows: 
Males 57, 750 and Females 50, 866. The distribution by age shows that the proportion of children 14 years and below is 39-5 percent and between 15 and 64 years is 55.4 percent. 
The local government is one of the centres of education because it has two higher institutions, college of education Afaha Nsit, and maurid Institute Mbiaso. And also privates and publics schools both primary and secondary. The population of the study area is made up of rich average and economically poor people. The will help the researcher to determine the family variables and pupils academic performance in social studies in primary school pupils in the area. 
  1. Population of the Study  
The population of the study comprised of all the primary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area. There are total of 56 public primary schools, with the pupils of 24, 602 according to local Education committee Annual Bulletine 2012. 
  1. Sample and Sampling Technique   
The sample of the study consisted of 200 primary two pupils and was randomly selected from ten primary schools out of 56 primary schools. The stratified random sampling technique was used to choose sample frame of the study.    








CHAPTER FOUR 
4.1 Data Analysis and Discussion of Findings 
     This chapter deals with the analysis of data generated in the study. 
Testing of Hypotheses 1: There is no significant deference between academic performance of pupils from upper socio-economic status family and pupils from lower socio-economic status family. 
Table 1: Independent t-test analysis upper socio-economic and lower socio-economic. 
Group A 
  N 
 
SD 
t-cal 
t-critical 
Df 
Pupils from high income families 
100 
62.7 
18.84 

2.20 

1.96 

198 
Pupils from low income families 
100 
48.7 
18.82 




From the analysis in table 1 above, the result of the findings shows that the t-cal. Of 2.20 which were greater than the t-critical of 1.96 at 0.05 level of significance with 198 degree of freedom, the null hypothesis was rejected. This means that there is a significant difference between academic performances of pupils from upper socio-economic status family and pupils from lower socio-economic family. 
Testing of hypotheses 11: There is no significant difference between academic performance of pupils with educated parents and pupils with uneducated parents. 
Table 11: Independent t-test analysis educated parents. 
Group A 
N 
 
SD 
t-cal 
t-critical 
Df 
Pupils from educated parents 
100 
62.2 
17.36 

2.930 

1.96 

198 
Pupils from uneducated parents  
100 
54.2 
21.09 




From the analysis in table ii above, the result shows that the t-cal of 2.630 which was greater than the critical value of 1.96 at 0.05 level of significant with 198 degree of freedom the null hypothesis was rejected. This means that there is a significant different between academic performance of pupils with educated parents and pupils with uneducated parents.  
Testing of Hypotheses 111: There is no significant difference between academic performance of pupils from large family and pupils from small family. 
Table iii: Independent t-test analysis large family and small family. 
Group A 
N 
 
SD 
t-cal 
t-critical 
Df 
Large family size pupils 
100 
62.7 
18.84 

2.20 

1.96 

198 
Small family size pupils 
100 
48.7 
18.82 




From the analysis in the table iii: above the result shows that the t-cal of 2.20 at 0.05 level of significant with 198 degree of freedom, the null hypothesis was rejected. This means that there is a significant different between academic performance of pupils from large family size and pupils from small family size. 
4.2 Discussion of Findings 
Base on the findings, it indicates that socio-economic status of parents has significance to the academic performance of pupils. The respondents agree that parents occupational status influence pupils academic performance with the mean of the findings agree with the earlier work carried out by stella (2013) observed that children school fees with they have difficulties in schools. Dusey (2008) Further stated that fathers occupation affect the styles of interactions in the home and hence academic performance of the children. 
Jones (2006), Observed that children from poor home (Family) background will be denied of the educational opportunely irrespective of their brilliant performance since there is no resources and money to back up the educational demands.   









CHAPTER FIVE 
Summary, Recommendations and Conclusions 
5.1 Summary 
This study was on family variables and pupils’ academic performance in primary school social studies in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area. The population for the study was 3500 primary two pupils. A sample of 200 pupils was randomly selected from ten primary schools in the study area. Three research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The instrument for data collection was the questionnaires (FVPAPPS). The statistical tool was the independent t-test. The findings revealed that family variables have significant influence on the academic performance of pupils. The following recommendations were made that parents should always raise a sizable number of children they would be able to cater for their educational needs and their welfare. 
The study concluded that socio-economic status of parents determines the types of school the child will go. 
5.2 Recommendations 
The following recommendations are made: 
  1. Government should make education to be free at the primary and secondary school levels so that all children should have equal opportunity to go to school. 
  1. Parents should be educated on the need to raise any the number of children they can cater for which should be three or four children. 
  1. Government should provide adult education for uneducated parent with the necessary educational materials as this will enlighten to see the need to improve upon their altitudes towards their children’s academic pursuit. 
  1. Teachers should improve upon their teaching method by considering pupils from poor family background and equally give them a sense of belonging. 
5.3 Conclusion    
    Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusion was drawn. 
  1. Pupils from upper socio-economic status family perform better than those from cower socio-economic status family in social studies performance. 
  1. Pupils with educated parents perform better in social studies academic performance than those with uneducated parents. 
  1. Pupils from small family size perform better in social studies  

No comments:

Leave a comment