Friday, February 15, 2019

Background to the Study: The Influence Of Family Variable On Academic Performance, Of Pupils

Every parent ants his or her child to do well in school parents expect their children to imbibe acceptable norms, value and attitude of the society, the society generally expect its citizenry to be loyal and educated. This is why the (NPE 2002) has among its aims to inculcate the right type of values and attitudes in the child. The school is a mirror of the society and parents depend upon the school to make their children where they are supposed to be. Many Nigerians, government, educationist and the public alike are deeply worried over the problem of poor performance in school as reported in the 2005 Joint Admission and matriculation Board Examination result (Jams, 2005), they argued that if the issue of poor performance in Nigerians schools is left unchecked, the aim and objectives of education would perpetually remain an illusion.  
However, the blame of this poor performance and lower achievement is place only on the4 school (Albert, 2002). It is necessary to realize that the school is not the only agency for the education of the education of the child. Home or family variables equally plays significant role and there is family. School relationship as stipulated in family- school relationship model. 
According to Ryan and Adams (2000), it is within the family that the child acquires and organizes his first experience and then move to his school for his secondary experience. One question often addressed focuses on children’s academic success and the effectiveness of the school and the family in assisting intellectual development of the child. As community, leaders, reaches and parents become more involved in their children academic growth, there is increased consideration of how the parents and school have unique and interacting influences. It is intending and explicitly clear that poor achievement of some pupils may not entirely be attributed to the school environment alone. It is generally acknowledged that family variable is the most powerful influence in deterring a child academic performance (Ceci 2004). This is as a result of the confusing situation that prompted the researcher to carryout this study. The interest of the researcher therefore is in determining if parents’ socio-economic status, parents academic level and family size, have similar or different predictable influence on primary school pupils academic performance in social studies.  It is based on this premise that the researcher decides to carryout the study titled, family variable and pupils’ academic performance in primary school social studies in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The question therefore is how does family variables. Influence primary school pupils; academic performance in social studies in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. 
1.2 Statement of the Problem 
Most families in our society seems not to give adequate attention to    the education of their children it often appears some of the parents have the erroneous notion that the performance of the child, especially in social studies rest squarely on the teachers only. Some even do not care much about the performance of their children in social studies. In the light of this, they do not seem to fulfill their roles of guidance and encouragement in their child’s academic performance in social studies. 
Some people have the notion that the mass failure or success in school could be traced back to family issues or variables like parental educational level, socio-economic status, and family size among other variables. It is rudely recognized that many other factors seem to b e involved in the child’s academic performance in social studies based on this premise.  
The major problem facing the researcher is to examine the influence of family variables on primary school pupil’s academic performance in social studies in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. 
1.3 Objectives of the Study 
The main objective of the study is to examine the influence of family variable on academic performance, of pupils in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Specifically, the study intends to determine whether? 
  1. Pupils from high socio-economic status family differ significantly from pupils of low socio-economic status  
  1. Pupils with educated parents differ significantly from pupils with uneducated parents in their academic performance in social studies. 
  1. Pupils from large family differ significantly from pupils from small family in their academic performance. 

1.4 Significance of the Study 
This study when computed will be great benefit to both the educational planners, parents, teachers and the general public. 
  1.  To the parents they will make parents to be aware of the influence of their home background on their children negatively or positively. 
  1. The study also features the essential achievement made by family as result of good performance recorded by the family harness as a factor that can improve students teaching and learning. 
  1. Another justification of this study deemed necessary for the parents is to give their children the positive insight and supportive roles, they should play at home. 
  1.  The study will also help the educational administrators in the system to plan their academic program that will benefit the Nigeria child. 
1.5 Research Questions   
      The following research question were posed to guide the study, 
  1. To what extent does a pupil from upper socio-economic status family differ from those of lower socio-economic status family in their academic achievement? 
  1. To what extent does a pupil with educated parents differ from those with uneducated parents in their academic performance? 
  1. To what extent does a pupil from large family differ from those from small family in their academic performance? 
1.6 Research Hypotheses 
       The following hypotheses were formulated for the purpose of this study to be realized: 
  1. There is no significant different between academic performances of pupils from upper socio-economic status family and pupils from lower socio-economic status family.  
  1. There is no significant different between academic performances of pupils with educated parents and pupils with uneducated parents. 
  1. There is no significant difference between academic performance of pupils from large family size and pupils from small family size. 

1.7 Limitation of the Study 
     There are many primary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area, but this study was limited to Ten (10) public primary schools only. The population of primary school pupils is relatively large. As such, the sample size was limited to 200 respondents within the study Area. The researcher encountered financials constraints, insufficient time and merge the research work with assignment, term paper, lectures and other extra-curricular activities. 
1.8 Definition of Terms  
  The following terms will be used in the study as they are operational defined. 
  1. Family variables: There are home factors when in one way or the other affect ones’ life. In this study, it includes socio-economic status, parental educational level and family size.  
  1. Academic performance: This is defined in this study as the assigned grades attained by pupils in a test of pupils achievement in school. 
  1. Socio-economic status: This is defined in this context as the amount of money, materials goods are posses, self-esteem, prestige and social acceptability of are in the society. 
  1. Family size: This is defined in this study as the number of children or relatives present in the family.  
  1. Family: This is a group consisting of two  
  1. Parents (father and mother) and their children living together as a unit. 
  1. Large family: This is a family with more than three children. 
  1. Small family: This is a family with less than three children. 

This chapter presents the views of educational researchers on family variables and academic performance of pupils. This is done under the following sub-headings; 
2.1 Concept of family size and academic performance. 
2.2 Concept of parent’s educational attainment and academic performance. 
2.3 Concepts of socio-economic status and academic performance. 
2.4 Summary of Literature review. 

Albert (2002) important issues about family planning Boston. Little brown         and company New Jersey practice.    
 Amos B. D (2004) influence of polygamous family in Nigeria New York Holt pine hart and Winston. 
Becker W. (2001) family life and planning, New York, McGraw hall book comp.  
Ceci E. E (2004) Marriage family and the family, New Jersey Preventive hall. (A. C) Englewood chaffs p. 2.0 
Dusey F. (2008) important issues affected family Education in Nigeria Oxford University Press. 
Evans U. K. (2008) Necessary things in upbringing in the family New York, McGraw Hill Books Company. 
Ezenwn Jaige C. N (2004) Social problem in the family. Thesis of University of Calabar unpublished. Pg 42135 
Fasor A. C (2003) Introduction to family unpublished. Pg ch 48/3. 
Frelan A. C (2006) Parental occupation on children education Lagos press Ltd. 
Good U. (2005) Families and their environment London Macmillan press.   
Hawkes F (2006) Authority responsibility and education. Enugu Allen student, science education. 
Jones F (2009) Parental Encouragement on academic of children. University of Calabar University. 
Lacovou R. J (2009) Parents altitude towards children education Nsukka Press Ltd.  
Misgrave D. F (1999) Home environment on learning. University of Nsukka press Ltd. 
National policy on Education (2004) 
Powell R and Steehnan T. (2003) Parental Economic Background and children’s academic achievement Uyo press Ltd. 
Valencia N. M. (2007) Education for National budding under publishing Ltd. 
Renal U. N. (1999) Parental Educational levels and students achievement in social studies University of Nsukka press Ltd.  
Ryan and Adams (2000) Families and their environment, London Macmillan press. 
Smart D. D. (2007) .Parent motivation towards children academic performance, Jos press Ltd. 

Appendix 1 
Sample Frame 
Name of School 
Demonstration primary school Afaha Nsit  
Que Ibom Church primary school, Ikot Ebere. 
Salvation army primary school, Afaha Offiong. 
Que Ibom Church primary school, Edeobom 1. 
St. Saviour African primary school, Edeobom 1. 
Que Ibom Church primary school, Ikot Nya. 
St. Paul primary school, Afaha Offiong. 
Que Ibom Church primary school, Oboyo Iko Ita. 
Apostolic primary school, Oboetim. 
Que Ibom Church primary school, Obo Ntong. 


                                 Appendix 11 
                                                           Department of social studies, 
                                                           Akwa Ibom State, 
                                                           College of Education, 
                                                           Afaha Nsit. 
Dear Respondent, 

I am a final year student of the above name Department. I am conducting a research on family variables and academic performance of pupils in social studies in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area. 
       This study is in partial fulfillment of requirement for my N C E Programme I am soliciting your co-operation to help me gather information on this topic by completing the questionnaire attached here.    The information supplied by you will be treated with high level of confidentiality and used for the purpose of this research only. 

Yours Faithfully, 

                                                                       Mbat, Eunice Nsima   

Section A: Personal Data 
  1. Name of school: --------------------------------------------- 
  1. Class: --------------------------------------------------------- 
  1. Sex: Male Female 
  1. Family structure: Larger family   Small family    

  1. ShapeShapeParent occupation: -------------------------------------------- 
(6) Socio- Economic status of parent: Poor   Rich  
     (7)Parent Educational status: Educated  Uneducated  

Section B  
INSTRUCTION: Please tick (√ ) in the space provided that salts to your answer. 
SA --Strongly agree 
SD--Strongly disagree 

We are only three in my family that is why parent always provide me with all my school needs. 

My parents always look at my assignments when ever I come back from school. 

My parents encourage me to studied base science. 

My parents always pay school fee on time because we are only two.  

My parents always pay for extra moral classes for us every term. 

We are seven in numbers that is why my parents can not pay my school fee on time. 

Most time I do teat and come to the school because of there is no food.  

My parents can not buy text books for me and my brothers because we are many. 

My parents don’t even have time for education nor to talk about to pay my school fee. 

We have no text books in my home or any reading materials. 

My mother alone cannot afford to provide all my school need. 

Since the death of my father I can not pay school fee on time. 

I always pay my fees late because my father is the only are that care for us. 

Since my father and my mother separated in marriage I always find it difficult to cope with school. 

My mother alone cannot prepare me to school on time. 

The researcher designed an instrument in gathering data for this study. And it was the home environment and academic performance questionnaire (HEAPQ) was divided into two, sections, the first section consisted of the respondents personal data while the second section covered all possible areas, the questionnaire is structure on yes / No. 
The contents, as well as the face validity of the instrument were carried out by the project supervisor in order to ensure that instruments adequately reflected what they purportedly measured. 
The researcher personally administered the questionnaire to the respondents. In their schools. Time was taken to explain the purpose of the study to the respondents. Ten schools were used and the instrument was administered to 150 pupils.  

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